教学理念 What is Language Immersion?
Language immersion is basically a method developed to teach people a second language, in which the language being taught is used specifically for instruction purposes.
Immersion programs that exist today actually originated in Canada in the 1960's, when middle-class English speaking parents campaigned for their children to be taught French through the experimental technique of language immersion. This enabled tutors to try and teach their students about specific French culture and traditions and to help them appreciate and understand them.
Unlike more traditional language teaching programs, where the language is taught simply as a subject to be learned, language immersion focuses more on the second language being a tool which is used to immerse the student completely within the subject.
In the US in 2005, there were approximately 317 dual language immersion programs in place within elementary schools with a vast choice of languages. There are mainly three different types of language immersion that are primarily dependent on which age group the students fall into. The first stage is Early Immersion, where students begin to learn their second language between the age of 5 or 6. The second stage is Middle Immersion, where students begin learning their second language around the age of 9 or 10. And the final stage is Late Immersion, which is typically the most popular, where the students learn between the ages of 11 and 14.
在美国某地区小学，2005年已经有大约317种沉浸式双语课程，有广泛的语言可供选择。主要有三种不同类型的语言浸入，主要取决于学生所属的年龄组。 第一阶段是Early Immersion，主体为5-6岁并开始学习第二语言的学生。第二阶段是Middle Immersion，主体为9-10岁开始学习第二语言的学生。最后阶段是Late Immersion，通常也是最流行的，在11-14岁开始学习第二语言。
Types of language immersion can also be characterised by the total time students spend in the program. Altogether, there are typically five different types of language immersion that are based on the extent of the immersion. Firstly, there is Total Immersion, which is where students spend 100% of their class time in the foreign language. The goal of Total Immersion is to encourage students to get used to using their second language casually and within spontaneous conversation, rather than planned sentences that are learned off by heart. The second type is Partial Immersion, which is where 50% of class time is spent learning the language. The main focus of Partial Immersion is to teach students about the culture of the country whose language they are studying.
语言浸入的类型也可以由学生在课程中花费的总时间来区分。 基于沉浸的程度，总共划分出五种语言浸入。 首先，有全浸入式学习，学生在上课时间完全使用外语。全浸入式学习的目标是激励学生习惯随意使用第二语言，并在自发的对话中使用，而不是用记熟的计划好的句子来对话。 第二种类型是部分浸入式学习，是指用50%的上课时间学习语言。 部分浸入的焦点是教学生正在学习语言的文化。
Thirdly, there is two-way immersion, also known as dual immersion, where half of the student population consists of people who know two or more languages. In two-way immersion, class time is split in half, each half focusing on one of the two languages. This method encourages the two sets of children to interact and teach each other so that they all eventually become bilingual. In FLES (Foreign Language in Elementary Schools) programs, 5-15% of class time is spent in the foreign language, and the rest of the time is devoted to learning the language itself. The main goals of FLES programs are to achieve accuracy and proficiency in listening and speaking, and to acquire a thorough knowledge of the cultures of that country.
第三种是双向沉浸，也称为双重沉浸，其中一半的学生由知道两种或多种语言的人组成。 在双向沉浸式中，上课时间分为两半，每一半用来学习两种语言之一。这种方法鼓励两组孩子互相交流，互相学习，使他们最后掌握两门语言。 在FLES(小学外语)课程中，上课时间的5-15%用于外语，其余的时间用于学习语言本身。 FLES计划的主要目标是实现听说的准确性和熟练程度，并获得对该国文化的全面了解。
Finally, there are FLEX (Foreign Language Experience) Programs which consist of short but regular sessions over a certain period of time. Although only 1-5% of class time is spent using the foreign language, the main goal of FLEX programs is to spark an interest within children about foreign languages so that they may continue on in further education to learn that language.
Although research into language immersion programs has shown that children who enter Early Immersion programs at the age of 5 or 6 tend to 'lag behind' for the first few years only, statistics show that encouraging children to learn about cultures other than their own and become bilingual appears to promote a more positive attitude towards multiculturalism.
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