趣味英语 人类或起源于欧洲-企业新闻
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趣味英语 人类或起源于欧洲

2017-05-24 18:03:54 本站 点击数:717

趣味英语 人类或起源于欧洲

Controversial study suggests earliest humans lived in Europe - not Africa

Controversial new research suggests that modern humans evolved from apes in the Eastern Mediterranean — not from ancestors in Africa, as long believed by the majority of scientists.

人类来自何处一直是科学界争议的话题,一项新研究表明,现代人类是由东地中海的猿类演化而来,而不是如大多数科学家长期认为的,来自非洲的祖先(南方古猿)。

The researchers' bold, potentially paradigm-shifting claims were published in two studies Tuesday in the journal PLOS One.

研究人员的大胆、很可能扭转人们认知的研究成果发表在周二的PLOS One杂志上。

The researchers base their arguments on analysis of two Graecopithecus freybergi ape fossils, a lower jaw found in Greece and an upper premolar found in Bulgaria, dating back 7.24 and 7.175 million years, respectively.

研究人员的依据是对两块Graecopithecus古猿的化石的分析,发现于希腊的下颌骨和保加利亚发现的上前臼齿,分别距今有724万年和717.5万年历史。

The team argued that several dental features from these fossils — in particular, partially fused premolar roots on the lower jaw fossil— make a convincing case that the Graecopithecus freybergi is the earliest known human ancestor. Scientists have seen partially fused premolar roots in several fossils throughout the human lineage.

该团队认为这些化石的几个牙齿特征——特别是下颌骨化石上的部分融合的前磨牙根部——使人相信Graecopithecus是已知最早的人类祖先。科学家已经在整个人类血统的几种化石中看到部分融合的前臼根。

"We were surprised by our results, as pre-humans were previously known only from sub-Saharan Africa," doctoral student Jochen Fuss said on behalf of the research team in a statement.

博士生Jochen Fuss代表研究小组在一份声明中表示:“我们对我们的结果感到惊讶,因为

之前我们只知道人类祖先来自撒哈拉以南非洲古猿。

If the fossils mark the earliest moment of humans' differentiation, it would significant change the human origin story. The researchers believe these fossils are several hundred thousand years older than the ancient hominin known as Sahelanthropus, a 6- to 7-million-year-old pre-human which was unearthed in Chad.

如果该化石标志着人类分化的最早时刻,那么它将大大改变人类起源的认知。研究人员认为,这些化石比称为Sahelanthropus的古人类早大数十万年,这个600-700万年的古人类,发现于乍得。

However, the study has been met with widespread skepticism from other experts in the field.

然而,这一研究受到来自其他专家的广泛怀疑。

Critics say that the research is not strong enough to undercut the widespread consensus that evidence shows hominins originated in African and migrated north.

评论家说,这项研究不足以推翻人们的普遍认知,人类起源于非洲人,并向北迁移。

"The idea that hominins (human ancestors, defined largely by upright posture, the predominance of bipedal walking, and small canine teeth in both males and females) first emerged in Europe has little to support it," paleoanthropologist Richard Potts, who leads the Smithsonian Institution's human origins program, told CBS News over email. Potts was not affiliated with the study.

古生物学家理查德·波茨(Richard Potts),史密森学派(Richard Smith)的人类起源计划的领导者通过电子邮件告诉CBS新闻,古人类(人类祖先,以直立姿态,双足步行,无论男女,出现了小犬齿)在首次出现在欧洲的观点几乎无法得到支持。Potts并不隶属于这项研究。

The researchers did little to back up the claim that a "fairly isolated place in southern Europe" could have been home to an ancestor of the African hominin, Potts said.

波茨说,研究人员没有足够证据的支持这样的说法:“南欧相当孤立的地方”可能是非洲古人类祖先的家园。

He criticized the researchers' claim that the Graeco fossil's canine root reduction clearly indicates the Graeco's status as an early hominin, arguing the researchers did not have enough contextual evidence to draw real conclusions from the single canine root (for instance, there was no canine crown to accompany the root).

他批评研究人员声称,Graeco化石的犬齿根磨损状况清楚地表明了Graeco作为早期人类的地位,认为研究人员没有足够的背景证据,从单一的根根中得出真正的结论(例如,没有伴随齿根的犬齿冠)。

"I really appreciate having a detailed analysis of the Graecopithecus jaw – the only fossil of its genus so far. But I think the principal claim of the main paper goes well beyond the evidence in hand," Potts said.

Potts说:“我非常期待对Graecopithecus下巴化石能有一个详细分析,这是迄今为止唯一的化石,但我认为主要论文的主要论据远远超出了现有的证据。”

Speaking to The Washington Post, anthropologist Susan C. Antón echoed Potts' skepticism. The long line of later hominins found in Africa suggests "an African origin," Antón, who teaches at New York University, said.

在纽约大学教书的人类学家苏珊·安东(Susan C.Antón)对华盛顿邮报说,回应了波茨的怀疑态度。在非洲发现的一连串的稍晚的古人类支持“非洲起源说”。

Jay Kelley, a paleontologist at Arizona State University's Institute of Human Origins, also questioned the researchers' conclusion that the fused premolar roots strongly indicate a connection to hominins. Fused tooth roots are not a constant feature across different hominin fossils, he told The Washington Post.

亚利桑那州立大学人类起源研究所的古生物学家杰克·凯利(Jay Kelley)也质疑研究人员的结论,即融合的前臼齿根系强烈表明与人类之间的联系。他对“华盛顿邮报”表示,融合牙根不是不同的人类化石的不变特征。

The team behind the new research included scientists from Germany, Bulgaria, Greece, Canada, France and Australia.

新研究背后的团队包括来自德国,保加利亚,希腊,加拿大,法国和澳大利亚的科学家。

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原文连接:http://www.eshareedu.com/News/detail/id/619.html


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