趣味英语阅读 城市的鸟儿更聪明-企业新闻
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趣味英语阅读 城市的鸟儿更聪明

2017-06-12 10:00:27 本站 点击数:694

趣味英语阅读 城市的鸟儿更聪明

孩子们在幼儿英语教材的绘本中可能会读到过一个故事,讲得是城市老鼠和乡下老鼠的故事,这个故事说明了不同的地方,其生活方式是不同的。最近研究人员同样发现了一个有趣的现象,在一项研究中,几十只鸟样本显示,城市的鸟儿更加聪明,解决问题的能力更强。

CITY BIRDS MAY BE SMARTER THAN RURAL ONES

Living in the city and the country require different skills—for humans, of course, but also for birds. Researchers testing the intelligence of urban versus rural birds found that the former were smarter. Unexpectedly, the city birds’ immune systems were also stronger.

生活在城市和乡村需要不同的技能 - 对于人类,当然对鸟类也是如此。研究人员测试了城市与农村鸟类的智力,发现前者更加聪明。令人意外的是,城市鸟类的免疫系统也更强。

To come up with this finding, scientists from McGill University in Montreal looked at Barbados bullfinches (Loxigilla barbadensis), a small brownish bird that is the island’s only endemic avian species and feeds primarily on seeds. Scientists took 53 birds from urban and rural areas of the island, conducted a variety of cognitive tests and then released them.

为了找出这个发现,蒙特利尔麦吉尔大学的科学家们观察了巴巴多斯牛雀(Loxigilla barbadensis),一种棕色的小鸟,是岛上唯一的特有的禽类物种,主要以种子为食。科学家从该岛的城市农村捕捉了53只鸟,进行了各种认知测试,然后放掉它们。

“We found that not only were birds from urbanized areas better at innovative problem-solving tasks than bullfinches from rural environments, but that surprisingly urban birds also had a better immunity than rural birds,” says Jean-Nicolas Audet, a doctoral student and first author of the study, published in the journal Behavioral Ecology, in a statement.

“我们发现,城市地区的鸟类在创新地解决问题方面,要比来自农村地区的牛雀表现出色,而且令人惊讶的是,城市禽鸟的免疫力比农村鸟类要好。” 博士生Jean-Nicolas Audet先生在一份声明中说道,他同时是这份研究的第一作者,研究成果发表在“行为生态学”杂志上。

“Since urban birds were better at problem-solving, we expected that there would be a trade-off and that the immunity would be lower, just because we assumed that you can’t be good at everything,” as both traits are costly, requiring a fair amount of energy and evolutionary time to develop, Audet said. “It seems that in this case, the urban birds have it all.”

“由于城市鸟类更好地解决问题,所以我们预计会有一个权衡,免疫力会低些,因为我们设想你不可能在各方面都出色,因为这两方面特征都是珍贵的,需要等量的精力和进化时间才能发展。Audet表示, “在这种情况下,城市鸟类似乎都是这样。”

Tests that the scientists conducted on the birds included having them access food by performing motor actions like pulling a stick or removing a lid, tasks at which the urban birds did better.

科学家对鸟类进行的测试包括:让它们通过执行精细动作(如拖开木棍或取下盖子)来获取食物,这些任务城市鸟类做得更好。

The study results make sense given that food resources are more predictable and static in the wild. But in the city, while birds like finches can find a wider variety—and more variable—food sources, there are also more diverse and unpredictable sources of danger (think: cars, cats, dogs, irate people). There are also likely more pathogens, which may explains the better immunity.

研究结果是有道理的,因为在野外食物资源更加可预测和更为静态。但是在城市,像牛雀一样的鸟类可以找到更广泛的种类和更多的可变食物来源,还有更多样化和不可预测的危险来源(想想看:汽车,猫,狗,愤怒的人)。也可能有更多的病原体,这可能解释了更好的免疫力。

The study only tested 53 birds found in rural and urban parts of a single island country, however, so it may not apply to different kinds of birds in different places.

这项研究只测试了一个单一岛国的农村和城市地区发现的53只鸟,因此可能不适用于不同地区的不同种类的鸟类。

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原文连接:http://www.eshareedu.com/News/detail/id/679.html


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