英语用法辨析 over和above的区别-企业新闻
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英语用法辨析 over和above的区别

2018-01-25 17:42:41 本站 点击数:676

英语用法辨析 over和above的区别

◆above prep.

1. 表示“在……上方”、“高于”(与 below 相对)。如:

The sun rose above the horizon. 太阳已升到地平线以上。

The plane flew above the clouds. 飞机在云层上飞行。

参见 above 与 over 的有关用法及区别。

2. 表示在地位、级别、能力、资历、重要性等方面“超过”、“在……之上”、“比……强”。如:

He is above the others in ability. 他的能力优于其他人。

He is above me in every way. 他各个方面都比我强。

As a scholar, he is far above me. 作为一个学者,他远远超过了我。

3. 表示在程度或限度等方面“超过”、“超越”等,这类短语通常用作表语。如:

The book is above me (my understanding). 这本书我读不懂。

The lecture was above the heads of most of the audience. 大部分听众听不懂这个演讲。

His heroism was above (beyond) all praise. 他的英勇行为 非言辞所能赞扬。

注:以上用法中的 above 有时可用 beyond 代之,尤其是其后接的是人称代词或人名时。如:

The problem is above (beyond) me. 这个问题我不懂。

4. 表示因优秀或出色等而“不致于”、“不屑于”、“不会”等,主要指道德方面,在句中主要用作表语:

She is above telling a lie. 她不致于说谎。

He is above doing such things. 他不致于做出那样的事来。

He is above meanness and deceit. 他不致于做出卑劣和欺骗的事情来。

If you want to learn, you must not be above asking questions. 你如果要学习,就要不耻下问。

◆ above & over prep. & adv.

1. 两者均可用的场合:

(1) 当表示垂直在上的正上方时,两者均可用。如:

A lamp was hanging over [above[ the table. 电灯悬挂在桌子上方。

Wild geese were flying above [over] the lake. 野雁在湖上飞翔。

They built a new room above [over] the garage. 他们在车房上加盖了一个新房间。

(2) 当用作副词且与and, or连用,表示“……以上”时,两者均可用。如:

You get an A grade for scores of 75 and over [above]. 75分或75分以上的分数就是优等。

Big-screen TVs are defined as 27 inches or above [over]. 在屏幕电视是指27英寸或更大的电视。

2. 通常用above的场合

(1) 当不是表示垂直在上的上方时,通常用above。如:

We’ve got a little house above the lake. 我们在湖边高坡上有一所小房子。

(2) 当表示温度、高度以及有纵向可比标准时,通常用above。如:

Today’s temperature is 10 degrees above zero. 今天气温是零上10度。

The town is 2,000 feet above sea level. 这座城市海拔2,000 英尺。

3. 通常用over的场合

(1) 表示覆盖意义时,通常用over。如:

Spread a cloth over the table. 在桌上铺一块桌布。

(2) 表示横过或越过时,通常用over。此时也可用across。如:

There is a bridge over the river. 河上有一座桥。

The terrorists escaped across [over] the border. 恐怖分子越过边境逃走了。

(3) 当表示数量的“多于”,含有类似more than的意思时,原来可用over,也可用above。但在现代英语中,通常只用over。如:

The blue whale grows to over 30 metres long. 蓝鲸可长到三十多米长。

Over 100 burglaries are reported every month, and that’s just the tip of the iceberg. 每月报案的入室盗窃案超过百起,而这只不过是已知的一小部分。

(4) 涉及速度时,若要表示“高于”“多于”,通常用介词over。如:

At the time he was diving at over 100 mph. 这时他的车速为每小时一百多英里。

(5) 涉及年龄时,若要表示“高于”“多于”,通常用介词over。此时也可用past。如:

She didn’t marry until she was over fifty. 她直到五十多岁才结婚。

No tickets are needed for people over 65. 六十五岁以上的人无需购票。

I don’t know how old he is, but he looks well over [past] forty. 我不知道他多少岁,但是他看上去有四十多岁了。

注:有时也可用above,尤其是与the age of连用时。如:

We cannot accept children above [over] the age of 10. 我们不能接受10岁以上的儿童。

4. see above与see over

在书或文章中,see above的意思是“见前文”“见上文”,see over的意思是“见下一页”,两者意思几乎相反,注意不要弄混。如:

See above, page 97 见前文,第97页。

See over for further information. 详情请见下一页。

5. over and above

over and above为习语,意为“此外”“另外”,与in addition to同义。如:

There are other factors over and above those we have discussed. 除了我们所讨论的之外,还有其他因素。

The city has spent $2 million over and above budgeted funds for the new stadium. 该市建这座新体育场的费用超出了预算资金200万美元。

above and over

1 'higher than': above or over

Above and over can both mean 'higher than'. Above is more common with this

meaning.

The water came up above/over our knees.

Can you see the helicopter above/over the palace?

2 'not directly over': above

We use above when one thing is not directly over another.

We've got a little house above the lake. (NOT ... over the laJce.)

3 'covering': over

We prefer over when one thing covers and/or touches another.

There is cloud over the South of England.

He put on a coat over his pyjamas.

We use over or across (see 9) when one thing crosses another.

The plane was flying over/across Denmark.

Electricity cables stretch over/across the fields.

4 measurements: above

Above is used in measurements of temperature and height, and in other cases

where we think of a vertical scale.

The temperature is three degrees above zero.

The summit of Everest is about 8000 metres above sea level.

She's well above average in intelligence.

5 ages, speeds, 'more than': over

We usually use over, not above, to talk about ages and speeds, and to mean

'more than'.

You have to be over 18 to see this film.

The police said she was driving at over 110 mph.

There were over 100,000 people at the festival.

6 books and papers

In a book or paper, above means 'written before'.

The above rules and regulations apply to all students.

For prices and delivery charges, see above.

See over means 'look on the next page'.

There are cheap flights at weekends: see over.

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