国外学生如何学习自然拼读知识?-企业新闻
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国外学生如何学习自然拼读知识?

2018-03-06 17:32:48 本站 点击数:368

一年级学生从少儿英语教材自然拼读中获益最多,之所以如此是因为这阶段他们的口语能力比阅读能力更强,因此不断地辨认单词可以反作用提升理解力。

自然拼读在意义建构中才有帮助,因此最好是在学生可以很容易地分割解码单词之后再教授音素意识和自然拼读,这样的效果会更好,足够的语料输入能让儿童对语言有更多理解,而对语言的简单操作是语言学习中重要方法,有语言积累学起来会容易许多。

在较高年级,学生每每正确读出一个单词,很可能不认识这个词,因而自然拼读学习对于阅读理解能力没有直接的助推作用。

小组教学对音素启蒙更高效,自然拼读引入似乎对小组人数不敏感,对阅读困难的学生同样如此,因而自然拼读教学学习可以较大组

在自然拼读教学中,可以使用一些无意义的字母序列和读音,自然拼读教学中无意义单词的包含与否同样有效果,不过无意义音节使用需谨慎,需要说明为何使用它们,解码文本同样如此。

解码练习是自然拼读学习的必要组成部分,好的自然拼读读物每个单词和字母都能满足练习所需。在自然拼读教学中,拼写也是很常见的教学方法,根据读音拼写单词能够促进音素意识的发展,对自然拼读教学也是有力支撑。

不同地区学生的口音对自然拼读教学造成一些困难。

下面是一些常用的音素认知技能,以及教学中的介绍方式。

Phonemic Awareness skill

Example of instruction

Phoneme isolation

Teacher: What sound do you hear first in cat?    Student: /k/

Auditory discrimination

Teacher: Which of these words doesn't belong: bag, bear, can?
Student: Can doesn't belong—it doesn't begin like bag and bear. 
-Or-
Teacher: What sound is the same in jar, jam, jet?
Student: /j/

Phoneme blending

Teacher: What word is /p/ /i/ /n/?     
Student: /p/ /i/ /n/ is pin

Phoneme segmentation

Teacher: Break this word into its sounds: sock.  Student:/s//o//k/ 
-Or-
Teacher: How many sounds are in tie?
Student: /t/ /i/ There are two sounds in tie.

Phoneme deletion

Teacher: Say chin without the /ch/
Student: in

Phoneme addition

Teacher: Add a /s/ to the end of duck
Student: Ducks
-Or-
Teacher: Add /b/ to the beginning of ring
Student: Bring

Phoneme substitution

Teacher: Change the last sound you hear in pig to /n/
Student: Pin

两种自然拼读的学习步骤

两种自然拼读的学习步骤

Synthetic or explicit phonics

Analytic or word analogy  phonics

1. Teacher teaches children some simple
consonant sounds (e.g., /b/, /n/, /p/, /s/).

1. Teacher teaches words (e.g., cat, pig, man, Dad).

2. Teacher teaches a vowel sound (e.g.,
the short/a/ — the sound in ca

2. Teacher then shows students how to use this word knowledge to sound out new words 
(e.g., can, pan, Dan): This word starts like
the first sound in cat and it ends like man /an/ ... It is can.

3. Teacher teaches children how to sound
out words, and perhaps nonsense words,
using these letter sounds: bab, ban, bap,
bas, nab, nan, nap, nas, pab, pan, pap, sab.
san, sap, sas

3. Teaching continues developing new words and understandings of the sound-symbol relationships based on known words.

4. Teaching continues letter by letter and
sound by sound.


Phonics Instruction

Content of phonics instruction

Examples

Consonants

b, d, f, g, h, k, 1, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z

Consonant blends or clusters

bl, br, cl, cr, dr, dw, fl, fr, gl, gr, pi, pr, sc, sk, sl, sm, sn, sp, st, sw, tr, tw, scr, str

Consonant digraphs

sh, th, ch, ph, ng, gh

Short vowels

cat, bet, fit, dot, but, myth

Long vowels

ate, beat, pipe, road, use

Vowel digraphs

oo, ew, aw, au, ou, ow, oi, oy

R-influenced vowels

ar, er, ir, or

Some common spelling patterns and complex rules

Consonant-Vowel-Consonant-Silent E CVCe), CVC, CV, CVVC, CVCCe, hard c, hard g

Silent consonants

kn, wr


更多自然拼读知识,请参考:

http://www.eshareedu.com/News/detail/id/778.html

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原文连接:http://www.eshareedu.com/News/detail/id/780.html


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